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Etymology of Italian Surnames

Surnames Listed Alphabetically

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Etimology of the following surnames and variations: Abbo | Agnese, Agnesi | Alberti | Amadeo | Armellini | Arrigo | Santoro, Santorum | Berardi, Bernardi

Categories of Surnames

According to their origin, surnames usually belong to one of these main classes:

Patronymics

The widest category, present almost in all cultures, identified a person by his connection with another person, usually his father, more rarely his mother: the father's name with "son" immediately after it in English, or "van", "von" "di" "de" in other European languages, example: Di Giovanni, Johnson; most of these Italian surnames end in -o (masculine name) or in -i derived from a Latin masculine genitive (example: Bernardi means "of Bernardo"). The same origin appears in the preposition "de" or "di" as in De Luca, D'Angelo, Di Francesco. In case of a double name it is possible that the second identified the grandfather, as in Colaianni meaning son of Nicola (Cola), grandson of Giovanni (Ianni).

Toponymics

To identify where a person or family lived or came from, for example: Montagna, Milani, Wood, York.
  • Local area: the surname was associated to a place well known to the community, as for example Fontana, Della Valle, Della Piana, La Porta, Montagna, Montanari, Monti (from the fountain, the valley, the plain, the town gate, the mountains)
  • Geographical origin: this was applied as a consequence of the migrations of people; the place had to be known to the community that applied the toponimic, therefore if the individual came from villages nearby, the name of the village was used; if he came from a more remote city, region or country, a more general name was used, like Milani, di Genova, Napolitano, Pugliese, Albanese.

Occupational names

The job, especially an artisan's job in a small village, was possibly held by only one person or family, so that the profession was added to the Christian name, example Barbieri (barber), Ferrari. The activity was often also shown with a typical object or animal connected to the profession, as Farina or Forni for a baker, Zappa for a farmer, Tenaglia or Martelli for a carpenter or smith.

These surnames are common also in other languages, as can be seen from the examples below.

  • Fabbri, Ferrari, Ferri ("fabbro ferraio") corresponding to Smith, Schmidt
  • Sarti ("sarto") corresponding to Schneider, Snyder, Taylor.
  • Molinari, Monari ("mugnaio") corresponding to Miller, Müller.
  • Calzolari, Calligari, Scarparo (calzolaio, scarparo), corresponding to Schuhmacher, Cobbler.

Nicknames

The nickname was often associated to some features of the personality or appearance, at times ironical, and came to identify an individual and his descendants, as can be seen in the examples below .
  • the color or form of the hair (some of the most common surnames have this origin) as in Rossi, Morelli, Ricci
  • body size, like Corti and Bassi (Short), Piccoli (small), Grossi (big), Testa (head);
  • more creatively, the (often ironical) nickname was made with a verb and an object indicating an action typical of the individual as in Pappalardo (that who eats lard);
  • other surnames may have come from the personality or moral features, as Selvaggi (Savage) or Allegretti (happy people).
  • names of animals could serve to the same purpose of a character or physical feature, so there were Mosca (a fly, someone small or annoying), Cavallo (someone big, noisy or with large front teeth), Gatto (cat), Grillo (cricket), Lepore (hare), Volpe (fox).
  • a nickname may have come also from some feature in the coatsofarm of the family, like De Argento (silver), Mazzei (club), D'Arco (bow), Tremonti (three mountains that often appear in coat of arms).

Surnames of Foundlings or Well-Wishing

This kind of surnames was chosen by religious institutions or, after the establishment of Civil Records, by the civil officer; they vary according to places and traditions, so that we have Esposito in Campania, Proietti in central Italy, Trovato in Sicily, Casadio and Degli Esposti in Emilia Romagna.

In the late 19th century the custom was introduced to give to foundlings surnames of non-residents, of flowers, months, of famous people, or surnames invented on the spot.